WTO farm talks: from COVID-19 into 2021. 4 References

Lessons from the pandemic for WTO work on agricultural trade and support. Part 4

By Peter Ungphakorn

In this 3-part series (plus one):

1. The pertinent questions | 2. What’s been happening inside and outside the WTO | 3. Policy responses: from confidence-building to a work programme | (Plus: References, this page)

Based on, with updates,
Chapter 20 (“Lessons from the pandemic for WTO work on agricultural trade and support”) in the CEPR e-book “Revitalising Multilateralism: Pragmatic Ideas for the New WTO Director-General” edited by Richard Baldwin and Simon Evenett


AMIS (2020), “COVID-19: Why export restrictions are the wrong response”, May 14

Baldwin, Richard and Simon J Evenett eds (2020), COVID-19 and Trade Policy: Why Turning Inward Won’t Work, CEPR Press VoxEU.org eBook

Clapp, Jennifer (2020), “Solving our Food Crisis,  Requires a Fundamental Transformation of the System”, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) blog, July 27

CPTPP (2020), “Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) – Statement on the occasion of the Third Commission Meeting”, Mexico, August 5

Evenett (2020), “What’s next for protectionism? Watch out for state largesse, especially export incentives”, in Baldwin and Evenett (2020), chapter 13

FAO (2020a), COVID-19 and the Risks to Food Supply Chains, declaration by 26 Latin American and Caribbean countries, Santiago de Chile, April 3

FAO (2020b), Website news, “Emerging data suggest COVID-19 is driving up hunger in vulnerable countries”, June 9

FAO and WFP (2020), FAO-WFP early warning analysis of acute food insecurity hotspots: October 2020, Rome, October

G20 Agriculture Ministers (2020), Ministerial Statement on COVID-19 Virtual Meeting, April 21

G20 Trade and Investment Ministers (2020), Ministerial Statement, May 14

GATT (1993), Document TN.GNG/MA/W/24, (non-binding) “Modalities for the Establishment of Specific Binding Commitments under the Reform Programme”, December 20

Glauber, Joseph (2019), “Agricultural trade aid: Implications and consequences for US global trade relationships in the context of the World Trade Organization”, American Enterprise Institute, November 19

Glauber, Joseph, David Laborde, Will Martin and Rob Vos (2020), “COVID-19: Trade restrictions are worst possible response to safeguard food security”, in Swinnen and McDermott (2020), chapter 14

Hepburn, Jonathan (2020), “Coronavirus, resilience, and food security: how can trade policy help?”, Thomson Reuters Foundation, April 30

Hepburn, Jonathan, Sophia Murphy, Joseph W. Glauber and David Laborde (2020), “What National Farm Policy Trends Could Mean for Efforts to Update WTO Rules on Domestic Support”, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Winnipeg, April 2020

Martin, Will J and Joseph W Glauber (2020), “Trade policy and food security” in Baldwin and Evenett (2020), Chapter 6

OECD (2020a), “COVID-19 and the Food and Agriculture Sector: Issues and Policy Responses”, Paris, April 29

OECD (2020b), “COVID-19 and global food systems”, Paris, June 2

Swinnen, Johan and John McDermott, eds, (2020), COVID-19 and Global Food Security. Washington DC, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

UN (2020), Website news with video policy brief, “Act now to avert COVID-19 global food emergency: Guterres”, June 9

Ungphakorn, Peter (2019), “How the WTO deals with problem trade measures — it’s not just dispute settlement”, Trade Beta Blog, December 11 (updated)

Ungphakorn, Peter (2020a), “The 20-year saga of the WTO agriculture negotiations”, Trade Beta Blog, March 23 (updated)

Ungphakorn, Peter (2020b), “Behind the rhetoric: ‘Public stockholding for food security’ in the WTO”, Trade Beta Blog, August 24, 2020

Ungphakorn, Peter (2020c), “Behind the rhetoric: Does the WTO need a third ‘safeguard’ against import surges?”, August 30–31, 2020

WFP (2020), Web page, “COVID-19 — Situation reports” (accessed September 1, 2020)

Winham, Gilbert R (1986), International Trade and the Tokyo Round Negotiation, Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press

Wolfe, Robert (2009), “The Special Safeguard Fiasco in the WTO: The Perils of Inadequate Analysis and Negotiation”, World Trade Review, vol 8(4), pages 517–544, September

Wolfe, Robert (2015), “First Diagnose, Then Treat: What Ails the Doha Round?”, World Trade Review, vol 14(1), pages 7–28, January

Wolfe, Robert (2020a), “Reforming WTO Conflict Management: Why and How to Improve the Use of ‘Specific Trade Concerns’”, Bertelsmann Stiftung Working Paper, February 24

Wolfe, Robert (2020b), “Exposing governments swimming naked in the COVID-19 crisis with trade policy transparency (and why WTO reform matters more than ever)” in Baldwin and Evenett (2020), chapter 12

Wolfe, Robert (2020c), “Informal Learning and WTO Renewal: Using Thematic Sessions to Create More Opportunities for Dialogue”, Bertelsmann Stiftung, August 6

WTO (1995), Agreement on Agriculture

WTO (2008), Document TN/AG/W/4/Rev.4, “Revised Draft Modalities for Agriculture”, commonly called “Rev.4”, December 6

WTO (2013), Website news, “Members start negotiating proposal on poor countries’ food stockholding”, March 27

WTO (2014), Factsheet, “The Bali decision on stockholding for food security in developing countries”, November 27

WTO (2015a), Document WT/MIN(15)/45, “Export Competition: Ministerial Decision of 19 December 2015”, December 21. (Also html version)

WTO (2015b), Web page, “Briefing note: Agriculture issues” for 10th WTO Ministerial Conference, Nairobi, 2015

WTO (2020a), Document G/AG/N/IND/18, “Notification” (India, on agricultural domestic support for marketing year 2018/19), March 31

WTO (2020b), Document G/AG/N/EU/61, “Notification” (EU on agricultural domestic support for marketing year 2017/18), April 30

WTO (2020c), Document WT/GC/208/Rev.2 or G/AG/30/Rev.2, “Responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic with Open and Predictable Trade in Agricultural and Food Products”, May 29

WTO (2020d), Document JOB/AG/187, “Implications of COVID-19 and Continuity of COA-SS Negotiations — assessment by the Chairman, Ambassador John Ronald Dipchandra (Deep) Ford”, June 24

WTO (2020e), Document WT/TPR/OV/W/14, “Report of the TPRB from the Director General on Trade Related Developments (Mid October 2019 To Mid May 2020)”, July 10

WTO (2020f), Website news, “WTO members push for increased transparency on COVID-19 measures in farm trade”, dated July 28 (accessed September 1, 2020)

WTO (2020g), Web page, “Information Session on Covid-19 and Agriculture — Transparency for Food Security”, July 28, accessed September 1, 2020

WTO (2020h), Web pages, “COVID-19 and world trade” (accessed September 1, 2020)

WTO (2020i), Web page, “Candidates for DG selection process 2020” (accessed September 1, 2020)

WTO (2020j), Information note “Cross-border mobility, COVID-19 and global trade”, August 25, 2020

WTO (2020k), Information note, “COVID-19 and agriculture: a story of resilience”, August 26, 2020

WTO (2020l), Document JOB/AG/191, “Report by Amb. Gloria Abraham Peralta, chair of the COA special session, to the informal TNC and HODs meeting”, December 17, 2020

WTO (2020m), Document WT/GC/W/810/Rev.3 or TN/AG/46/Rev.3 “Proposal on agriculture export prohibitions or restrictions relating to the World Food Programme” (3rd revision), December 18, 2020

WTO (undated-a), Web page, “Domestic support in agriculture: The boxes” (accessed September 1, 2020)

WTO (undated-b), Web page, “Director-General Roberto Azevêdo — Speeches, statements and news” (accessed September 1, 2020)

More on the agriculture negotiations

Acknowledgement: Thanks to Robert Wolfe, Jonathan Hepburn and Simon Evenett for comments on drafts of the original e-book version

Updates: none so far
Picture credits: Books | Jez Timms via Unsplash, CC0


Author: Peter Ungphakorn

I used to work at the WTO Secretariat (1996–2015), and am now an occasional freelance journalist, focusing mainly on international trade rules, agreements and institutions. (Previously, analysis for AgraEurope.) Trade β Blog is for trialling ideas on trade and any other subject, hence “β”. You can respond by using the contact form on the blog or tweeting @CoppetainPU

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